1. Solubility and distribution phenomena: Solvent - solute interactions, solubility of gases in liquids, liquids, solids - factors influencing solubility - methods of increasing solubility, distribution coefficient, significance of distribution coefficient.
2. Complexation: Types of complexes, methods of analysis, complexation and drug action.
3. Kinetics: Rates and orders of reactions, determinations of order of a reaction, influence of temperature and other factors on reaction. Decomposition of medical agents. Methods and principles of stabilization. Accelerated stability analysis - principles and methods. An introduction to ICH guidelines.
4. Interfacial Phenomena: Liquid interfaces, adsorption at liquid interfaces. Surface active agents classification, properties, applications HLB. Adsorption at solid interfaces. Electric properties at interfaces - Zeta potential and its importance.
5. Colloids: Types, methods of preparation, properties, protective colloid action, solubilization. Gels, structure, properties and applications.
6. Coarse dispersions: Emulsions, suspensions and semisolids. Suspensions - interfacial properties of suspended particles, setting in suspensions. Formulation and evaluation of flocculated and deflocculated suspensions. Emulsions: Theories of emulsification, Physical stability of emulsions, preservation of emulsions, rheological properties of emulsions, suspensions and semisolids.
7. Rheology: Newtonian systems. Thixotropy measurement and its applications in pharmacy. Determination of viscocity, viscometer.
8. Micromeritics: Particle size and size distribution, methods of determining particle size, particle shape, particle number, surface area - methods of determining surface area, derived properties of powders - their significance.
1. Physical pharmacy by Alfred Martin;
2. Tutorial Pharmacy by Cooper and Gunn, edited by S.J.Carter;
3. Remington's Practice of Pharmaceutical Sciences.