1. Benzene and aromaticity; Modern structure of benzene aromaticity. Huckels rule, nomenclature of benzene derivatives, Electrophilic substitution reactions - mechanisms of nitration, halogenation, sulphonation and Friedel-crafts alkylation, Theory of reactivity and orientation in mono substituted benzenes, preparation and uses of gammabenzene hexachloride, saccharide and chloramines-T.
2. Aldehydes and Ketones; Nomenclature, general methods of preparation, structure versus reactivity, nucleophilic addition reactions, acidity of alphahydrogens and carbanion addition reactions. Haloform reactions of methyl ketones. Preparation and uses of formaldehyde, paraformaldehyde, acetaldehyde, paraldehyde, acetone, chloral hydrate, benzaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde, vanillin.
3. Carboxylic acids: general methods of preparation, reactions, acidity preparation and properties of hydroxy acids. Preparation and uses of acetic acid, lactic acid, oelic acids, succinic acid and tartaric acid.
4. Sulphonic acid: Methods of preparation and uses of alkyl and aryl sulphonic acids-sodium lauryl sulphate.
5. Functional derivatives of carboxilic acids - Nucleophilic acyl substitution reactions; Preparation of acid chlorides, amides, anhydrates and ester form acids. Nucleophilic acyl substitution reactions - preparation and uses of ethyl acetate, diethyl phthalate, methyl salicylate, ethyl acetate and aspirin. Preparation and synthetic uses of malonic ester and aceto acetic ester.
6. Phenols: General methods of preparation, acidity, characteristic reactions. Preparation and uses of phenol, catechol, resorcinol, hydroquinone and pyrogallol.
7. Aryl-halides - Nucleophilic aromatic substitution. General methods of preparation, reactivity of aryl halides, nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions.
8. Amines: General methods of preparation, basicity of amines, characteristic reactions of amines, seperation of different classes of amines, Ring substitution in aromatic amines, quaternary ammonium compounds, preparation and uses of ethanolamine, aniline, acetanilide, urea and tetra butyl ammonium hydroxide, cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide.
9. Diazonium compounds: Preparation, reactions and uses.
10. Polynuclear aromatic compounds: structure and reactions of napthalene, anthracene and phenanthrene.
11. Name reactions: Mannich reaction. Michael addition, Beckmann rearrangement. Fries rearrangement, Bayer-villiger oxidation.
1. Organic chemistry by Morrison and Boyd
2. Bently and Driver's Textbook of pharmaceutical chemistry.
3. Organic Chemistry, Vol. I, by I.L.Finar.
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