1. A general introduction to pharmaceutical analysis and general aspects of standardization of pharmaceutical chemicals and formulated products mentioned in Indian pharmacopoeia. Importance of proper sampling and general books for pharmaceutical standards like pharmacopoeias, National formularies.

2. Computation of analytical results, significant numbers, rejection of doubtful values with reference to volumetric and gravimetric analysis, sources of errors and calibration of analytical equipment used in volumetric and gravimetric analysis.

3. Acid base titrations : Theoretical basis of neutralization reactions including electrolytic dissociation, application of law of mass action, relative strength of acids and bases, hydrolysis of salts and buffer solutions, theory of neutralization indicators and factors involved in the selection of indicators for different types of titrations using strong acid, week base, strong base, week base and back titration with blank determination.

4. Oxidation-reduction titrations: Theoretical considerations including standard potentials, calculation of redox potentials, redox indicators, principle and procedure involved in different types of redox titrations using potassium permanganate, iodine. Titrations of released iodine and back titration of excess iodine, potassium iodate, ammonium ceric sulphate and titanous chloride.

5. Precipitation titrations: Principles and procedures involved in argentimetry, use of silver nitrate and ammonium thiocyanate. Indicators used in precipitation titrations including adsorption indicators, Mohr's and Volhard's methods with examples.

6. Complexometric titrations: Basic principles of complexometric analysis including theories of complex ions, chelating ions, chelating agents, properties of metal complexes with particular reference to EDTA. Basic principles of Complexometric analysis including theories of complex formation. Werner's coordination number and structure of complex ions, chelating agents, properties of metal complexes with particular reference to EDTA, various examples of titrations of metal ions using disodium acetate, indicators and end point detection using indicators and by physical methods, masking and demasking agents, pharmaceutical applications of Complexometry with particular reference to I.P.

7. Non-aqueous titrations: principles, advantages and pharmaceutical application, solvents reagents and indicators usesd in non-aqueous titrimetry, other methods of detecting end points. Examples of titrations of alkali metal and alkaline earth metal salts of organic acids, primary, secondary and tertiary amines, halogen acid salts of bases, titration of acidic substances.

8. Principles and procedures involved and application of nitrate titrations, titrations using 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol. Aquametry including use of Karl-fisher reagent and moisture balances. Drying and distillation, oxygen flask combustion method of analysis.

9. A detailed study of gravimetric analysis including principles involved, critical factors and typical methods involving precipitation, coagulation, digestion, filtration and incineration procedues with suitable examples. Advantages and disadvantages, sources of errors and their elimination in gravimetric analysis.

10. Gas analysis: principles of gas analysis, use of hempel's gas burette and pipette, nitrometer, haldome's and orset's gas analysis apparatus and their operations. Examples of gas analytical methods of pharmaceutical significance.

Text books:
1. Indian Pharmacopoeia.
2. Practical pharmaceutical chemistry by A.H.Backet and stenlake.

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