I. Drying: Introduction, classification of drying equipment-static bed, moving bed and fluidized bed systems-sprayer dryer, infrared drying, freeze drying, choice of dryers. Factors influencing the rate of drying, mechanism of drying with carrier gas, typical drying curve.

II. Crystallization: crystal forms and crystal habbit - supersaturation and formation of crystals and crystal growth, Miler's supersaturation theory of crystallization and its limitations, solubility curves.

III. Mixing: Solid-solid mixing, mechanism of mixing. Mixers: V-type, drum, paddle and rotocube mixers - selection of mixer, mixing of viscous masses: kneading machines and ointment mills. Liquid - liquid and gas - liquid mixing equipment. Impellers - their characteristics and field of operation.

IV. Size reduction: Classification of equipment - cutting roll, edge runner and end runner mills, disintegrators, hammer mills, ball and tube mills, colloid mills - impact mills, fluid energy mill, choice of size reduction machinery - theory of size reduction. Energy for size reduction.

V. Size seperation: Screens and screening equipment - air and hydraulic seperators, sedimentation, particle size distribution and its measurement - representation of data.

VI. Refrigeration: Principles ans equipment, choice of refrigerant, coefficient of performance. Humidity control: Definition, methods of monitoring and drying gases - air conditioning, cooling towers - wet and dry bulb hygrometry, study of air handling systems.

VII. Extraction: Principles of solid - liquid and liquid - liquid extraction, equipment, diffusion batteries - extraction of towers - Podbielnaik extraction.

1. Introduction to chemical Engineering by Walter L.Badger and Julius T.Banchero.
2. Elementary Chemical Engineering by Max S. Peters.
3. The theory and practice of Industrial Pharmacy by Leon Lachman, H.A.Lieberman and Joseph L.Kanig.
4. Pharmaceutical engineering by K.Sambamurthy published by New age international (p) Ltd.

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