A Study of the following topics with particular reference to pharmaceutical industry.

1. Fluid Flow: Definitions, material balance, energy balance, Bernouli's equation, stream line and turbulent flow, Reynolds number, roughness of pipe surfaces, energy loses in flowing fluids through pipes. Measurement of pressure and fluid flow. Different types of manometers, orifice meter, venture meter, pilot tube and Rotameter. Solutions to simpler numerical problems.

2. Transportation of fluids: Pipe fittings and valves. Pumping equipment, reciprocating pumps, diaphragm pumps, centrifugal pumps, rotary pumps and compressors. Use of compressed air, air lift pumps, screw pumps, monopump and peristaltic pump. water supply and maintenance of water at different temperatures.

3. Heat transfer: Introduction, conduction, Fourier's law, conduction through plain and cylindrical surfaces, compound resistances. Heat transfer from condensing vapours. Dropwise and film type condensation. Properties of steam, Heat exchangers. Parallel and counter current flow. Radiation, Stephan's and Kirchoff law, physical nature of surfaces. Heat conservation and insulation. Requirements of a good conductors.

4. Evaporation: General principles, methods of supply of heat, types of evaporators, jacketed evaporators, film evaporators, forced circulation evaporators, evaporator accessories, wet and dry condensors, vacuum pumps, gauzes, steam traps.

5. Distillation: Theory applied to binary mixtures, boiling point and equilibrium diagrams, constant boiling mixtures, equilibrium distillation, differential distillation, rectification, distillation stills, automatic water stills, molecular distillation and its application.

6. Filtration: Filtration media and filter aids, types of filters, filter presses, rotary continuous filter and Meta filters. Sterile filtration of liquids, air filters. Filter operation, effect of pressure and temperature on rate of filtration, compressibility of filter cake, elementary theory of filtration, solutions of simpler numerical problems. Centrifuges, theory and equipment and applications.

7. Materials of construction: Consideration of mechanical properties, corrosion and contamination. Consideration of ferrous metals and their alloys. Non - ferrous metals like copper, tin, lead, nickel, zinc, silver and platinum. Non-metallic materials like stone ware, wood, glass, rubber and plastics. Materials of Pharmaceutical packaging; Industrial hazards and safety precautions; Mechanical, chemical, electrical, fiber and dust hazards. Safety requirements, fire extinguishers, industrial dermites.

Text books:
1. Introduction to chemical engineering by Water L.Badger and Julius T.Bancher;
2. The Theory and practice of industrial Pharmacy by Leon Lachman, H.A Lieberman and Joseph L.Kanig;
3. Tutorial Pharmacy - Cooper and Gunn.
4. Pharmaceutics, The Science of Dosage Form Design, edited by Michael E.Aulton.

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