General Pharmacognocy: Advantages and disadvantages of obtaining drugs from cultivated and wild plants. Variability of drug constituents due to exogenous and endogenous factors like altitude, temperature, rainfall, light, propagation by seed vegetative means, mutation, hybridization; Deterioration of crude drugs during storage of crude drugs. Methods of storage.

Evaluation of crude drugs: Identity, purity and quality of crude drugs by organoleptic microscopic, physical, chemical and biological evaluation; Methods of adulteration, detection and identification of adulterants types and significance of standards for crude drugs included in I.P. and B.P. Quantitative pharmacognosy.
A detailed study of the following drugs, their classification methods of preparation, commercial varieties, active principles, their chemical nature, identification, tests and uses; Roots and rhizomes: Male fern, valerin, rhubarbm podophyllum, liquorice, turmeric, ginger, ipecac, rauwolfia, aconite and jalap; Unorganised drugs: opium, aloes, kino, gambier, agar, alginates, gelatin.
Resins, gum resins, oleoresins-colophony, benzoin, shellac, myrr, galbanum, asafetida, tyrpentine, balsam or Tolu, balsam of Peru and storax; Glands and glandular secretions-thyroid, pitutary, adrenal, pancreas and musk; Gums and saccharin subatances: acacia, tragacanth and honey.

Chromatography and some related terms. Classification and a study of various chromatographic methods. Column, paper, thin layer and gas chromatography, HPLC and their applications to natural products. Biogenesis; Pathways leading to formation of plant products; Historical development of plant tissue culture, types of cultures, nutritional requirements, growth and their maintenance, applications of plant tissue culture in production of pharmaceutically important secondary metabolites.

Recommended books:
1. Atal CK and Kapoor BM. Cultivation and utilization of aromatic plants. CSIR Publications.
2. Tyler, VC, Brady, LR and Robers, JE.Pharmacognasy., 11th to 14th Editions;
3. Wallis. TE. Textbook of pahrmacognacy., 5th edition, J & A, Churchill Limited, U.K
Kokate, CK.Purohit, A.P. and Ghokale, SB.Pharmacognosy;
5. Ross, MF. and Brain,KR. An introduction to phytopharmacy, Pitamn Medical-Kent;
Deinvert, J. and BajajYPS. Applied and fundamental aspects of Plant cell, Tissue and Organ culture, Berlin.

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